Oleic Acid and Hydroxytyrosol Inhibit Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Synthesis in C6 Glioma Cells

Mar 12, 2023 | Cholesterol, Polyphenols and Health


Recently, the discovery of natural compounds capable of modulating nervous system function has revealed new perspectives for a healthier brain. Here, we investigated the effects of oleic acid (OA) and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), two important extra virgin olive oil compounds, on lipid synthesis in C6 glioma cells. OA and HTyr inhibited both de novo fatty acid and cholesterol syntheses without affecting cell viability. The inhibitory effect of the individual compounds was more pronounced if OA and HTyr were administered in combination. A reduction of polar lipid biosynthesis was also detected, while triglyceride synthesis was marginally affected. To clarify the lipid-lowering mechanism of these compounds, their effects on the activity of key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-ACC and fatty acid synthase-FAS) and cholesterologenesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase-HMGCR) were investigated in situ by using digitonin-permeabilized C6 cells. ACC and HMGCR activities were especially reduced after 4 h of 25 μM OA and HTyr treatment. No change in FAS activity was observed. Inhibition of ACC and HMGCR activities is corroborated by the decrease of their mRNA abundance and protein level. Our results indicate a direct and rapid downregulatory effect of the two olive oil compounds on lipid synthesis in C6 cells.